Scope: Can appear in server and virtual host configurations, as well as in .htaccess files.
The <Files> directive provides access control by filename and is comparable to the <Directory> and <Location> directives. <Files>should be closed with the corresponding </Files>. The directives specified within this section will be applied to any object with a basename matching the specified filename. (A basename is the last component of a path, generally the name of the file.)
<Files>sections are processed in the order in which they appear in the configuration file, after the <Directory>sections and .htaccess files are read, but before <Location>sections. Note that <Files> can be nested inside <Directory>sections to restrict the portion of the filesystem to which they apply. However, <Files> cannot be nested inside <Location>sections.
The filename argument should include a filename or a wildcard string, where ? matches any single character and * matches any sequence of characters, just as with <Directory>sections. Extended regular expressions can also be used, placing a tilde character (~) between the directive and the regular expression. The regular expression should be in quotes. The dollar symbol ($) refers to the end of the string. The pipe character (|) indicates alternatives, and parentheses (()) can be used for grouping. Special characters in extended regular expressions must be escaped with backslashes (\). For example:
<Files ~ "\.(pl|cgi)$"> SetHandler perl-script PerlHandler Apache::Registry Options +ExecCGI </Files>
would match all the files ending with the .pl or .cgi extension (most likely Perl scripts). Alternatively, the <FilesMatch regex> ... </FilesMatch>syntax can be used.
There is much more to regular expressions than what we have shown you here. As a Perl programmer, learning to use regular expressions is very important, and what you can learn there will be applicable to your Apache configuration too.
See the perlretut manpage and the book Mastering Regular Expressions by Jeffrey E. F. Friedl (O'Reilly) for more information.
Eric Cholet (Logilune) and
Stas Bekman (StasoSphere & Free Books).